• Attachment The tag, tongue, cord or lace joining the wax to the document.

  • Impression A mark made in the wax by the impact of a matrix.

  • Imprint The extant finger or hand prints left by the person handling the wax during the process of sealing.

  • Matrix The implement by which an impression is made in the wax.

  • Print owner The person whose imprints are left in the wax.

  • Ridge detail Tiny cutaneous folds on the fingers and palms which make up an imprint.

  • Note on numbering

    We have numbered the extant pieces of wax from left to right, taking the top left of the document as a theoretical starting point and working around the edge of the document. Where two or more pieces of wax are found on one attachment, we have counted out or down from the end of the attachment closest to the document.

    Note on dating

    While some documents were dated, this only became commonplace towards the end of the 13th century. The date range presented in this database represents the time span within which the document was probably composed based on identifiable individuals, events or relationships to other documents.